White Power (im Sinne von: Weiße Macht) ist ein oft verwendeter Schlüsselbegriff in der Neonaziszene. Der Begriff White Power und das Symbol der. Das Okay-Handzeichen als Symbol für white power zu benutzen, der extremen Rechten absichtlich begannen, die Geste zu verwenden“. Die Geste ist mittlerweile umstritten, weil Rechtsradikale aus der Handform ein "wp" ablesen und als verdecktes Symbol für "white power".
Proteste in den USA - Umstrittenes FingerzeichenDoch in jüngster Zeit wurde die Okay-Geste auch mit Anhängern der rassistischen "White Supremacy"-Ideologien in Verbindung gebracht. Auch in den USA wird die neue White Power-Geste inzwischen verstärkt diskutiert. Erst im Dezember kam es zu einem neuen Vorfall, als. White Power (im Sinne von: Weiße Macht) ist ein oft verwendeter Schlüsselbegriff in der Neonaziszene. Der Begriff White Power und das Symbol der.
White Supremacy Geste Main navigation Bottom Header VideoHate Rising: White Supremacy in America
A concept used to describe religious, social or political belief systems that exist substantially outside of belief systems more broadly accepted in society i.
Extreme ideologies often seek radical changes in the nature of government, religion or society. Extremism can also be used to refer to the radical wings of broader movements, such as the anti-abortion movement or the environmental movement.
Many seek to re-inject such bigoted ideas into the conservative movement in the United States. Christian Identity is a religious sect and one of the longstanding segments of the white supremacist movement.
They are not Christian fundamentalists, who strongly oppose their views. Terrorism is a pre-planned act or attempted act of significant violence by one or more non-state actors in order to further an ideological, social or religious cause, or to harm perceived opponents of such causes.
Significant violent acts can include bombings or use of other weapons of mass destruction, assassinations and targeted killings, shooting sprees, arsons and firebombings, kidnappings and hostage situations and, in some cases, armed robberies.
Domestic terrorism consists of acts or attempted acts of terrorism in which the perpetrators are citizens or permanent residents of the country in which the act takes place and are not members or agents of foreign or international terrorist organizations.
In the United States, the extreme right consists primarily of two large, slightly overlapping spheres. In one sphere is the white supremacist movement, including its various submovements, such as neo-Nazis, racist skinheads, and the alt right, among others.
It's even encoded into some of our holidays, like Columbus Day, which celebrates a racist perpetrator of genocide. The white supremacy of our society is evident in the fact that whites maintain a structural advantage over people of color in nearly every aspect of life.
White people maintain an educational advantage , an income advantage , a wealth advantage , and a political advantage. White supremacy is also evident in the way communities of color are systematically over-policed in terms of unjust harassment and unlawful arrest and brutalization , and under-policed in terms of police failing to serve and protect ; and in the way that experiencing racism takes a societal-wide negative toll on the life expectancy of Black people.
These trends and the white supremacy they express are fueled by the false belief that society is fair and just, that success is the result of hard work alone, and an overall denial of the many privileges that whites in the U.
From the 19th to the midth century the doctrine of white supremacy was largely taken for granted by political leaders and social scientists in Europe and the United States.
Several attempts were made to give white supremacy a scientific footing, as various institutes and renowned scientists published findings asserting the biological superiority of whites.
Those ideas were bolstered in the early 20th century by the new science of intelligence testing , which purported to show major differences in intelligence between the races.
In such tests northern Europeans always scored higher than Africans. In the United States—especially in the South—in the era of slavery and during the subsequent Jim Crow period of legal racial segregation , white supremacy enjoyed broad political support, as it did in contemporary European colonial regimes.
The doctrine was especially associated with violent groups such as the Ku Klux Klan KKK , which enjoyed some success in the United States particularly in the s , though many nonviolent individuals and groups also believed fervently in white supremacist ideas.
By the mids, however, overtly racist doctrines fell into deep disfavour across much of the Western world, a development that was hastened by both desegregation see racial segregation and decolonization.
Further information: Apartheid and Baasskap. Francis Nick Griffin Michael H. Retrieved November 11, Although white racist activists must adopt a political identity of whiteness, the flimsy definition of whiteness in modern culture poses special challenges for them.
In both mainstream and white supremacist discourse, to be white is to be distinct from those marked as non-white, yet the placement of the distinguishing line has varied significantly in different times and places.
NYU Press. White Supremacy. Oxford Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press. The Guardian. September 3, That in this free government all white men are and of right ought to be entitled to equal civil and political rights; that the servitude of the African race, as existing in these States, is mutually beneficial to both bond and free, and is abundantly authorized and justified by the experience of mankind, and the revealed will of the Almighty Creator, as recognized by all Christian nations; while the destruction of the existing relations between the two races, as advocated by our sectional enemies, would bring inevitable calamities upon both and desolation upon the fifteen slave-holding states.
Stephens Vice President of the Confederate States , March 21, , Savannah, Georgia Archived November 17, , at the Wayback Machine : "Our new government is founded upon exactly the opposite idea; its foundations are laid, its cornerstone rests, upon the great truth that the negro is not equal to the white man; that slavery—subordination to the superior race—is his natural and normal condition.
Frank Baum's Editorials on the Sioux Nation". Archived from the original on December 9, Retrieved Full text of both, with commentary by professor A.
Saito The U. National Archives and Records Administration. August 7, Archived from the original press release on October 4, Retrieved October 3, Majority opinion.
Loving v. Racial Attitudes in America: Trends and Interpretations. Harvard University Press. The questions deal with most of the major racial issues that became focal in the middle of the twentieth century: integration of public accommodations, school integration, residential integration, and job discrimination [and] racial intermarriage and willingness to vote for a black presidential candidate.
The figure shows that there ha been a massive and continuing movement of the American public from overwhelming acceptance of the principle of segregated schooling in the early s toward acceptance of the principle of integrated schooling.
Race, Ethnicity, and Gender: Selected Readings. Pine Forge Press. In only 42 percent of a national sample of whites reported that they believed blacks to be equal to whites in innate intelligence; since the late s, however, around 80 percent of white Americans have rejected the idea of inherent black inferiority.
New Left Review. Guilford Publications. Bring the war home: The white power movement and paramilitary America. The white power movement that emerged from the Vietnam era shared some common attributes with earlier racist movements in the United States, but it was no mere echo.
Unlike previous iterations of the Ku Klux Klan and white supremacist vigilantism, the white power movement did not claim to serve the state.
Instead, white power made the state its target, declaring war against the federal government in The Nation. Retrieved August 11, PBS NewsHour.
New Left Review : New York: Random House. Dec 1, December 13, Christopher, Land, Roderic R. OCLC Social and Economic Studies. ISSN Carter Godwin The mis-education of the Negro.
Internet Archive. Trenton, N. The Social Studies. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press. However, neither the election nor any other factor seems to have driven substantial numbers of new recruits into their ranks.
The result was that, like the anti-government extremists, white supremacists increased their proclivity for violence but, unlike the anti-government extremists, they did not grow in numbers.
The lack of growth was disappointing for white supremacists, many of whom in had been excited about possibly increasing their numbers. Some had hoped to make inroads into the Tea Party, but such ventures met with little success.
Others hoped to capitalize on anti-immigration sentiments, but found that people with anti-immigration views in the United States have many ways to express their sentiments, and many groups of like-minded people to join, without ever having to resort to getting involved with white supremacists.
Here, too, white supremacists had relatively little success. The reality is that the organized segments of the white supremacist movement today are, for the most part, simply not very healthy.
Of the five main white supremacist movements which will be discussed individually in the next section , four are relatively stagnant or even in decline at the moment.
Only one segment of the movement—white supremacist prison gangs—has been experiencing considerable growth. Since , a number of once-prominent white supremacist groups have disintegrated or split into factions, often as long-time leaders died and were replaced by much less capable and charismatic successors.
Other groups fell apart after their leaders were arrested. Today, most white supremacist groups are actually quite small.
In contrast, the unorganized segment of the white supremacist movement is much larger than the organized segment. Unaffiliated or independent white supremacists far outnumber white supremacists who belong to specific organizations.
In particular, the tremendous growth of the Web has allowed many white supremacists to engage with like-minded people without actually having to join an organization.
White supremacist discussion forums like Stormfront allow huge numbers of white supremacists to network and converse with each other without belonging to a group.
The social networking revolution that began around amplified this trend; today, it is easy for white supremacists to connect, even on a one-to-one basis, on social media platforms like Facebook.
These interactions need not be solely virtual, as on-line interactions often lead white supremacists to meet-ups and interactions in the real world.
Some of the violent acts conducted or plotted by white supremacists in recent years even originated with on-line interactions.
In addition to the ideological ties that bind white supremacists together, there also exist a number of strong cultural elements. Racist skinheads are simply one of the major variations of skinhead subculture there are also anti-racist skinheads and traditional skinheads.
White supremacist prison gangs have their own strong subculture that originally evolved from behind prison walls. This is due largely to the considerable differences within the various subdivisions of the movement—but here too one can find shared symbols, rituals, and ideas.
One final issue regarding the state of the white supremacist movement is the rising importance of gangs. When many people think of white supremacist groups, they might think in terms of a traditional, formally-organized group, such as a Klan group or a neo-Nazi group.
However, gangs are an increasingly popular alternative form of organization for white supremacists. White supremacist gangs typically combine a gang structure, subcultural elements, some degree of ideology, and often criminal activity.
In a few places, most notably California, white supremacist street gangs also emerged during this period. California has the most developed white supremacist gang environment and is home to each of these types of gangs, including many that combine elements from all three.
Most of these groups have small memberships and are short-lived, but overall they are becoming more popular. One of the most active in recent years has been the Illinois-based Sadistic Souls Motorcycle Club, which is actually an offshoot of Aryan Nations.
Some white supremacist prison gangs have also had biker offshoots. The white supremacist movement in the United States is an amalgamation of a variety of different types of groups, traditions, beliefs including various religious ideologies , and subcultures.
An adherence to shared white supremacist beliefs may be the only thing a year-old racist skinhead from a poor neighborhood in a Texas suburb has in common with a year-old small-businessman, and neo-Nazi, from Cleveland, Ohio.
Within white supremacy there are a variety of sub-movements, each of which contains its own constellation of groups and individual adherents.
It is possible to belong to more than one of the sub-movements, although a few are mutually exclusive.
In addition, there are some white supremacist groups that do not neatly fit within any particular area of white supremacy.
One example of this is the Creativity Movement, formerly known as the World Church of the Creator, a white supremacist group that dates back to the s.
It is not a neo-Nazi group, though Matt Hale, its last leader until he received a year prison sentence for soliciting the murder of a federal judge , seems consciously to have emulated former neo-Nazi leader George Lincoln Rockwell.
When it was convenient, adherents cooperated with a variety of other white supremacists. In addition, many argue that Odinism or white supremacist Norse paganism now is significant enough to constitute a sixth major sub-movement.
Neo-Nazis comprise one of the most visible and public elements of the white supremacist movement, as well as one of the most detested.
The neo-Nazi movement arguably reached its peak in the s, thanks to the National Alliance and its founder, former Rockwell disciple William Pierce, who penned the notorious white supremacist novel The Turner Diaries.
Pierce built the National Alliance into the largest neo-Nazi group in the United States, numbering some 1, members at its height. The National Alliance even purchased a white power music company, Resistance Records, to increase its reach and bring in more cash.
However, the story of the neo-Nazi movement in the 21st century has largely been one of declining numbers and importance, at least in terms of organized groups.
Pierce died suddenly in and his successors virtually destroyed the National Alliance, causing factionalization, mass defections, and the collapse of Resistance Records.
Within the past year, a small group of former Alliance members has been trying to resurrect the group, but with little success so far. This decline was echoed by Aryan Nations, the second most important neo-Nazi group.
Nevertheless, Aryan Nations today is much smaller than its s equivalent. Led by Jeff Schoep, the group mostly avoided the in-fighting that decimated some other neo-Nazi groups.
The NSM reached a peak of activity in the mids, organizing a number of public events and rallies around the country, but its activities have tailed off somewhat more recently.
NSM depends upon a core group of leaders and activists to travel to NSM events organized in different places. The group also cooperates with Klan groups and other white supremacists from time to time, although many hardcore racist skinhead groups view the NSM with disdain.
Over the years, people associated with the NSM have been involved in a moderate amount of criminal activity, but generally on their own rather than at the behest of the group.
He continues to await trial. Other neo-Nazi groups are all much, much smaller, with membership in the dozens. They tend to be either small, isolated descendants of the American Nazi Party or short-lived new groups that form largely from splits and defections in other organizations and which tend to cannibalize similar groups for members until they too break apart.
Overall, then, the organized portion of the neo-Nazi movement has for some years been in relatively poor health. Racist skinheads are one of the three main branches of the skinhead subculture, along with traditional skinheads and anti-racist skinheads the latter often called SHARPs, which stands for Skin Heads Against Racial Prejudice.
Skinheads first emerged as a British working-class subculture in the late s; racist skinheads materialized within the broader subculture by the late s, tarnishing the reputation of all skinheads.
By the s, racist skinhead scenes had appeared across Western Europe and North America.